Showing posts with label students school. Show all posts
Showing posts with label students school. Show all posts

Wednesday, August 23, 2017

Useful Grammar for Students in Bhutan



Useful grammar for classes 9 and 10. I have been using this notes for a long time now.

TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES
The transformation of a sentence is the conversion of the sentence from one grammatical form to another without changing its meaning. It provides a variety to our expression and makes the sentence more varied and interesting. This can be done as follows
1.      Interchange the Degree of Comparison
By changing the degree of comparison of an adjective or an adverb in a sentence without changing its meaning;
Positive Degree:                      No other metal is as useful as iron.
Comparative Degree:              Iron is more useful than any other metal.
Superlative Degree:                 Iron is the most useful of all metals
Positive Degree:                      Helen is not so cleaver as some other girls of her class.   
Comparative Degree:              Some girls of the class are cleverer than Helen.
Superlative Degree:                 Helen is not one of the cleverest girls in the class.

2.      Interchange of Voice from Active to Passive and Vice Versa
Active Voice:              Brutus stabbed Caesar.          
Passive Voice:             Caesar was stabbed by Brutus.
Active Voice:              One should keep one’s promise.
Passive Voice:             Promises should be kept.
Active Voice:              I shall be obliged to go.
Passive Voice:             Circumstance will oblige to go.

3.      Interchanging  Affirmative Sentences into Negative Sentences and Vice Versa
Affirmative:                I was doubtful whether it was you.
Negative:                     I was no sure that it was you.
Affirmative:                He is the cleverest boy in the class.
Negative:                     No other boy in the class is as cleaver as he.
Affirmative:                His students always respect him.
Negative:                     His students never disrespect him.
Affirmative:                As soon as I entered the stadium, the match started.
Negative:                     No sooner did I enter the stadium, the match started.  

4.      Interchanging  Interrogative to Affirmative Sentences and Vice Versa
Interrogative:              Which is a better monument than the Taj in India?
Affirmative:                No mountain is better than the Taj in India.
Interrogative:              Is man the noblest creation of God?
Affirmative:                Man is the noblest creation of God.
Interrogative:              Why waste time in listening?
Affirmative:                It is foolish to waste time in listening.

5.      Interchanging  Exclamatory Sentences to Assertive Sentences and Vice Versa
Exclamatory:               What a beautiful scenery!
Assertive:                    It is a beautiful scenery.
Exclamatory:               Alas! my father is admitted to hospital!
Assertive:                    It is so sad that my father is admitted to hospital.
Exclamatory:               If only I was young again!
Assertive:                    I wish I was young again.

6.      Interchanging one Parts of Speech to Another and Vice Versa
Verb:                           He invited me to his birthday party. 
Noun:                          He sent an invitation to me on his birthday party.
Adjective:                   He is an honest man.
Noun:                          He is a man of honesty.
Adverb:                       Rana Pratap fought the Battle of Haldighati bravely.
Adjective:                   Rana pratap put up a brave fight in the Battle of Haldighati.
Noun:                          He showed generosity even to his enemies.
Adjective:                   He was generous even to his enemies.

7.      Expression of Conditions use of had/but/if/unless/incase/provided
1. (a) Had Jugraj not scored the goal, India would have lost the match.
    (b) If Jugraj had not scored the goal, India would have lost the match.
    (c) But for Jugraj’s goal, India would have lost the match.
2. (a) Ajay will attend the seminar if Dr. Sinha presents the paper.
    (b) Ajay will attend the seminar provided Dr. Sinha presents the paper.
    (c) Ajay will attend the seminar on the condition that Dr. Sinha presents the paper.
3. (a) Monica Seles will not play in the French Open unless she is completely fit.
    (b) In case Monica Seles is completely fit, she will play in the French Open.

8.      Expression of contrast/concession (use of although/though/however/Inspite of/ notwithstanding
(a) Although Dr. Radhakrishnan was a teacher he became the President of India.
(b) Inspite of being a teacher Dr. Radha Krishnan became the President of India.
(c) However Dr. Radhakrishnan was a teacher, he became the President of India.
(d) Dr. Radhakrishnan was a teacher nevertheless he became the President of India.
(e) Notwithstanding that Dr.Radhakrishnan was a teacher, he became the President of   
     India.
9.      Conversion of Simple Sentences to Compound Sentences and Vice Versa
Simple:            Having finished his work he went to bed.
Compound:     He finished his work and he went to bed.
Simple:            Inspite of his hard work, he could not top the class.
Compound:     He worked hard but he could not top the class.
10.  Conversion of Compound Sentences to Complex Sentences and Vice Versa
Compound: Leave home early or you will miss the bus.
Complex: Unless you leave home early, you will miss the bus.
Compound: He lost the race but but he impressed all.
Complex: Though he lost the race, he impressed all.
Compound: Search her pockets and you will find a necklace.
Complex: If you search her pockets, you will find a necklace.

11.  Conversion of Simple Sentences to Complex Sentences and Vice Versa
Simple:He is too weak to walk on the road.
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot walk on the road.
Simple: He expected to win the tournament.
Complex: He expected that he would win the tournament.
Simple: A dead man needs no friends.
Complex: A man who is dead needs no friends.
Simple: She will attend the seminar with your permission.
Complex: She will attend the seminar if you permit her.

Some general rules
1.      Too…To
Too + adjective/ adverb+ to +verb (base form)
        i.            He is so poor that he cannot afford to continue his studies.
Ø  He is too poor to afford to continue his studies.
      ii.            He was so tired that he could not stand.
Ø  He was too tired to stand.
    iii.            He is so old that he cannot learn things.
Ø  He is too old to learn things.

2.      So ….that…...Not
So + Adjective/adverb +that +Negative clause according to the tense used
        i.            He is too proud to beg.
Ø  He is so proud that he cannot beg.
      ii.            You are too young to play the game.
Ø  You are so young that you cannot play the game.
    iii.            He was too gentle to have committed a crime.
Ø  He was so gentle that he could not have committed a crime.


3.      No sooner …. Than
No sooner + had + past participles
No sooner + did + present form of verb
                    i.            As soon as David came on the crease, it started raining.
Ø  No sooner had David came on the crease than it started raining.
                  ii.            Immediately after they entered the room, we burst into laughter.
Ø  No sooner did they enter the room than we burst into laughter.
                iii.            As soon as he saw me, he fled.
Ø  No sooner had he seen me than he fled.

4.      Hardly …When
Hardly + had + past participle
Hardly + did + present form of verb
        i.            No sooner did Karma hear the whistle than she jumped out of the bed.
Ø  Hardly had Karma heard the whistle when she jumped out of the bed.
Ø  No sooner did Karma hear the whistle when she jumped out of the bed.
      ii.            Immediately after he arrived home, the downpour began.
Ø  Hardly had he arrived home when the downpour began.
    iii.            As soon as he saw me, he pretended to work.
Ø  Hardly had he seen me when he pretended to work.

5.      Not only …. But also
Not only + verb + noun/ pronoun and add ‘but also’ before the last clause
                    i.            He has robbed the valuables and killed the old man.
Ø  Not only has he robbed the valuables but also killed the old man.
                  ii.            Besides being a talented old man Jackson was also fun loving.
Ø  Not only was Jackson a talented old man but also fun loving.
                iii.            He won the mathematics as well as the essay prize.
Ø  Not only did he win the mathematics but also the essay prize.

6.      Inspite of
Inspite of + ing form of verb
                    i.            He works too slowly but his progress is fairly satisfactory.
Ø  Inspite of working too slowly, his progress is fairly satisfactory.
                  ii.            He is clever yet he failed in the examination.
Ø  Inspite of being clever, he failed in the examination.
                iii.            Though the boy was grieving for the loss of his mother, he bore his loss with dignity.
Ø  Inspite of grieving for the loss of his mother, he bore his loss with dignity.


7.      Despite
Despite + noun/pronoun+ ing form of verb
                    i.            Even though the car is old, it goes fast.
Ø  Despite the car being old, it goes fast.
                  ii.            Though it was a cloudy day, the temperature was 40° C.
Ø  Despite the day being day, the temperature was 40° C.
                iii.            Though the boy was suffering from cancer, he bore it with smile.
Ø  Despite the boy suffering from cancer, he bore it with smile.

8.      No other
No other + positive degree
                    i.            Bhutan is the youngest democratic country in the world.
Ø  No other democratic country in the world is as young as Bhutan.
                  ii.            ‘The Titanic’ is the best film that I have ever seen.
Ø  No other film that I ever seen is as good as ‘The Titanic’.
                iii.            Asoka was the greatest king of India.
Ø  No other king of India was as great as Asoka.

9.      Besides
Besides + ing form of verb
                    i.            He is not only a fool, but also a villain.
Ø  Besides being a fool, he is also a villain.
                  ii.            He not only robbed the poor child, but also murdered her.
Ø  Besides robbing the poor child, he also murdered her.

10.  Having
Having + past participle
                    i.            The child threw all water away before he put the kettle on to boil.
Ø  Having thrown all water away, the child put the kettle on to boil.
                  ii.            When she finished her work, she went to the hostel.
Ø  Having finished her work, she went to the hostel.

11.  Unless
If not = unless
                    i.            If you don’t work hard, he will not succeed.
Ø  Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.
                  ii.            Write neatly or I will refuse read to read your work.
Ø  Unless you write neatly, I will refuse read to read your work.

Rewrite the following sentences correctly according to the instructions given after each.  Make other changes that may be necessary but don’t change the meaning of the sentences.
1.       Albert is too proud to beg. (Remove: ‘too’)
2.      Raju’s father praised him when he got I prize in the debate. (Use: ‘criticize’)
3.      As soon as Tashi came on the crease, it started raining.  (Use: ‘no sooner’)
4.      He has a different opinion from others on this issue.  (Use: ‘differently’)
5.      Sonam should not eat too much.  (Remove:  ‘too’)
6.      Her attitude shows that she is a bold girl.  (Use: ‘timid)
7.      Karma was so frightened that she could not study in her room.  (Use:  ‘too’)
8.      No sooner did the batsman start hitting sixes than he was caught at long leg.  (Use: ‘as soon as’)
9.      Gyeltshen showed generosity even to his enemies.  (Use: ‘generous’)
10.  The puzzle was too difficult for Meena to solve.  (Use: ‘so’)
1.      He speaks too fast to be understood.  (Begin he speaks so fast…….)
2.      My heart is too full for words.  (Begin My heart is ……………)
3.      The mangoes are so costly that you cannot buy them.  (Use too)
4.      Akbar was one of the greatest kings.  (Use greater)
5.      Do not insult the weak.  (Begin Let ………….)
6.      Only a millionaire can afford such extravaganza.  (Begin Nobody ……………)
7.      Everybody will admit that he did his best.  (Begin None………..)
8.      Where there is smoke there is fire  (Begin There is………….)
9.      Ah, what a sight was there! (End …………… sight)
10.  He was dismissed for negligence.  (Use negligent)
1.      Being occupied with important matters, he had no time to see us.  (Begin He was)
2.      In the event of such a thing happening.  I shall resign. (Begin Let…….)
3.      He neither returned the gods nor paid the bill.  (Begin Besides…….)
4.      He escaped several times but was finally caught.  (Begin In spite……….)
5.      With your permission I will go away.  (Begin If………)
6.      Industry will keep you from want.  (Begin If………..)
7.      I convinced him of his mistake.  (Use mistaken)
8.      You or I must go away.  (Begin If…….)
9.      It is surprising that he did not succeed.  (Begin He………..)
10.  I know what you told him. (Begin You told……………)
11.  If I am right you must be wrong.  (Begin Either …………………)
12.  But for the accident, they should have had a good picnic.  (Begin If…….)
13.  Nobody will deny that he is honest.  (Begin Everyone ………..)
14.  Only a fool would believe you.  (Use nobody)
15.  We sow so that we may reap.  (End ……………sow)