Trial Lesson Plan 2015
Date: 23/4/2015
Topic: Punctuation
Class: V
Teaching Strategies: The use of Teaching Aids and chalk board
Skills: Problem solving

-Define Punctuation
-Write importance of punctuation
-Learn different types of Punctuation
-Use punctuation

Tr. Gives eg. Of this sentence:
“Hang him, not let him free.”
-wrong use of comma leads to hanging of a person.

Lesson Development
The word “punctuation” is derived from the Latin word “punctum” which means a point. Hence punctuation means putting the right kind of points in the right place so as to mark the exact length and meaning of sentences.
Why do we punctuate?
Proper punctuation is essential in written English to enable the reader to understand what it is you are trying to say. Spacing with punctuation is also important to make your writing readable.
Here are some English punctuation rules.


·         Periods or full stop…..(.)
·         Question Marks…..(?)
·         Exclamation marks……(!)
·         Commas…………..(,)
·         Semicolons……….(;)
·         Colons………….(:)
·         Quotation Marks……..(“….”)
·         Parentheses and Brackets…….(…)
·         Apostrophes………………(‘)
·         Hyphens…………….(-)
·         Dashes……………(--)
·         Ellipses………….(…)
·         Oblique or Virgule……(/)
·         Capitalization……..(A.B.C)

Explanation of different punctuations( Tr. Pastes the chart on the board and explains to the students)
1. Full Stop or Period
1. Use a full stop at the end of a sentence:
The man arrived. He sat down.
2. Use full stops with abbreviations (in an abbreviation the last letter of the word and of the abbreviation are not the same):
Co. (Company)
etc. (et cetera)
M.P. (Member of Parliament)

2. Question Marks
1) A question mark (?) is placed after a direct question.
A) Where are you going?
B) What are you doing?
2) A question mark follows an interrogative sentence even if it is part of a larger sentence.
A) How could he do that? I wondered.
3) If a declarative or imperative sentence is intended to be interrogative, the sentence ends with a question mark.
A) This is what we've been waiting for?

3. Exclamation Mark (!)
An exclamation mark usually shows strong feeling, such as surprise, anger or joy. Using an exclamation mark when writing is rather like shouting or raising your voice when speaking. Exclamation marks are most commonly used in writing quoted speech. You should avoid using exclamation marks in formal writing, unless absolutely necessary.
When to Use Exclamation 
1. Use an exclamation mark to indicate strong feelings or a raised voice in speech:
She shouted at him, "Go away! I hate you!"
He exclaimed: "What a fantastic house you have!"
"Good heavens!" he said, "Is that true?"
"Shut up!"
2. Many interjections need an exclamation mark:
"Hi! What's new?"
"Oh! When are you going?"
"Ouch! That hurt."
3. A non-question sentence beginning with "what" or "how" is often an exclamation and requires an exclamation mark:
What idiots we are! (We are such idiots.)
How pretty she looked in that dress! (She looked very pretty in that dress.)
4. In very informal writing (personal letter or email), people sometimes use two or more exclamation marks together:
I met John yesterday. He is so handsome!!!
Remember, don't be late!!
I'll never understand this language!!!!
Remember, try to avoid exclamation marks in formal writing such as an essay or business letter.

4. Commas (,)
1. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.
The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave.
The student explained her question, yet the instructor still didn't seem to understand.
Yesterday was her brother's birthday, so she took him out to dinner.
2. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause.
a. Common starter words for introductory clauses that should be followed by a comma include after, although, as, because, if, since, when, while.
While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.
Because her alarm clock was broken, she was late for class.
If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.
When the snow stops falling, we'll shovel the driveway.
Having finished the test, he left the room.
 3. Use commas to separate items in a list of three or more..
Remember that an “item” may refer to a noun, verb, or adjective phrase.
Note:: Usage of a comma to separate the second-to-last from the last item is optional.
Example:: I need to buy eggs milk lettuce and bread.
I need to buy eggs, milk, lettuce, and bread.

5.  Quotation Marks (double, single) (“ ”   ‘ ’)
We use quotation marks to show (or mark) the beginning and end of a word or phrase that is somehow special or comes from outside the text that we are writing. Quotation marks can be double ("...") or single ('...') - that is really a matter of style (but see below for more about this).
Quotation marks are also called "quotes" or "inverted commas".
1. Use quotation marks around the title or name of a book, film, ship etc:
The second most popular book of all time, "Quotations from the Works of Mao Tse-tung", has sold over 800,000,000 copies and was formerly known as "The Red Book".
'Titanic' is a 1997 movie directed by James Cameron about the sinking of the ship 'Titanic'.
2. We use quotation marks around a piece of text that we are quoting or citing, usually from another source:
In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language, David Crystal argues that punctuation "plays a critical role in the modern writing system".
3. Use quotation marks around dialogue or direct speech:
It was a moonlit night. James opened the door and stepped onto the balcony, followed by Mary. They stood in silence for a few moments, looking at the moon. Then Mary turned to him and said: "Do you love me, James?"

6. Apostrophe (‘)
The apostrophe has three uses:
to form possessives of nouns
to show the omission of letters
to indicate certain plurals of lowercase letters
Forming Possessives of Nouns
To see if you need to make a possessive, turn the phrase around and make it an "of the..." phrase. For example:
the boy's hat = the hat of the boy 
three days' journey = journey of three days
If the noun after "of" is a building, an object, or a piece of furniture, then no apostrophe is needed!
room of the hotel = hotel room 
door of the car = car door
leg of the table = table leg
Apostrophes are used in contractions. A contraction is a word (or set of numbers) in which one or more letters (or numbers) have been omitted. The apostrophe shows this omission. Contractions are common in speaking and in informal writing. To use an apostrophe to create a contraction, place an apostrophe where the omitted letter(s) would go. Here are some examples:
don't = do not 
I'm = I am 
he'll = he will 
who's = who is 
shouldn't = should not 
didn't = did not 
could've= could have (NOT "could of"!) 
'60 = 1960

8. Semicolon (;)
Rule 1
Use a semicolon in place of a period to separate two sentences where the conjunction has been left out.
Call me tomorrow; I will give you my answer then.
I have paid my dues; therefore, I expect all the privileges listed in the contract.
Rule 2
It is preferable to use a semicolon before introductory words such as namely, however, therefore, that is, i.e., for example, e.g., or for instance when they introduce a complete sentence. It is also preferable to use a comma after the introductory word.
You will want to bring many backpacking items; for example, sleeping bags, pans, and warm clothing will make the trip better.
As we discussed, you will bring two items; i.e., a sleeping bag and a tent are not optional.
Rule 4
Use the semicolon to separate units of a series when one or more of the units contain commas.
This conference has people who have come from Boise, Idaho; Los Angeles, California; and Nashville, Tennessee.
9. Colons
1) A colon (:) is used to introduce series or lists.
A) The steps are as follows:
1.      Construct a triangle...
2.      Connect the points...
2) A complete sentence, question, or long quotation is introduced with a colon.
A) One rule is supreme: Do not fire until the order is given.
B) I quote from his recent speech: "In times such as this... our only option is to declare war.
3) A colon is used to introduce speech into a dialog, and after the introductory address of a speaker.
A) Father: Has he asked you yet?
B) Jan: No, he hasn't asked yet.
C) Ladies and Gentlemen:...
5) Colons are used to separate the subtitle from the main part of the title.
A) Homecoming: The Earth's Call
B) The Troubled Partnership: A Re-appraisal of the Atlantic Alliance

10. Parentheses
6) The independent part of a sentence that is not directly related to the main statement is enclosed in parentheses.
A) Three people (all in the fourth row) were talking loudly.
B)The pool will be open until Labor Day. (Last year it closed August 15.)
7) Parentheses are used to enclose letters or numbers to count items in a series, or with numbers or other symbols used appositively.
A) She traced the development of the symphony by using examples from the works of 1) Bach, 2) Beethoven, and 3) Mozart.
B) With each order of six (6), enclose a check or money order for three dollars ($3.00).
8) A place name that is not part of an official name but is necessary in a sentence is enclosed in parentheses.
A) The Springfield (Massachusetts) Museum shouldn't be confused as being the Springfield (Illinois) Museum.
9) When the parenthetical matter is a complete statement, the punctuation comes before the closing parentheses.
A) The pool will be open until Labor Day. (Last year it closed August 15.)
11. Capital Letters
1. Use a capital letter for the personal pronoun 'I':
What can I say?
2. Use a capital letter to begin a sentence or to begin speech:
The man arrived. He sat down.
Suddenly Mary asked, "Do you love me?"
3. Use capital letters for many abbreviations and acronyms:
G.M.T. or GMT (Greenwich Mean Time)
N.A.T.O. or NATO or Nato (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
4. Use a capital letter for days of the week, months of the year, holidays:
Monday, Tuesday
January, February
Armistice Day
5. Use a capital letter for countries, languages & nationalities, religions:
China, France
Japanese, English
Christianity, Buddhism
6. Use a capital letter for people's names and titles:
Anthony, Ram, William Shakespeare
Professor Jones, Dr Smith
Captain Kirk, King Henry VIII
7. Use a capital letter for places and monuments:
London, Paris, the Latin Quarter
the Eiffel Tower, St Paul's Cathedral
Buckingham Palace, the White House
Oxford Street, Fifth Avenue
Jupiter, Mars, Sirius
Asia, the Middle East, the North Pole
8. Use a capital letter for names of vehicles like ships, trains and spacecraft:
the Titanic
the Orient Express, the Flying Scotsman
Challenger 2, the Enterprise
9. Use a capital letter for titles of books, poems, songs, plays, films etc:
War And Peace
If, Futility
Like a Virgin
The Taming of the Shrew
The Lion King, Gone With The Wind
10. Use capitals letters (sometimes!) for headings, titles of articles, books etc, and newspaper headlines:

     Activity I
Use appropriate punctuation marks in the following sentences.
1. We had a great time in France  the kids really enjoyed it
2. Some people work best in the mornings others do better in the evenings
3. What are you doing next weekend
4. Mother had to go into hospital she had heart problems
5. Did you understand why I was upset
6. It is a fine idea let us hope that it is going to work
7. We will be arriving on Monday morning  at least I think so
8. A textbook can be a wall between teacher and class
9. The girls father sat in a corner
10. In the words of Murphys Law Anything that can go wrong will go wrong
1. We had a great time in France – the kids really enjoyed it.
2. Some people work best in the mornings; others do better in the evenings.
3. What are you doing next weekend?
4. Mother had to go into hospital: she had heart problems.
5. Did you understand why I was upset?
6. It is a fine idea; let us hope that it is going to work.
7. We will be arriving on Monday morning – at least, I think so.
8. A textbook can be a ‘wall’ between teacher and class.
9. The girl’s father sat in a corner.
10. In the words of Murphy’s Law: ‘Anything that can go wrong will go wrong.’
Notebooks are corrected and feedbacks given

Date: 24/4/2015
Topic: Direct Speech to Indirect Speech
Class: V
Teaching Strategies: The use of Teaching Aids and chalk board
Skills: Problem solving

-Define Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
-Learn different rules of Direct Speech and Indirect Speech
-Solve Direct Speech to Indirect Speech problems

Give a sentence eg: “What is your name?” the teacher asked.

Lesson Development

Direction Narration means the repetition of actual words of the speaker without any change at all.
Indirect Narration means to convey the sense/ substance of the speaker’s words in directly.
To change a sentence into indirect narration, a set of rules is applied. These rules are given below in the form of a table with examples.

Rules for Changing Direct Speech to Indirect Speech
Removal of inverted
Comma and use of ‘that’
Yonten said, “I shall go there.”
Yonten said that he will go there.
Said                 told
( if reporting verb is followed by an object)
Yonten said to me, “I shall go there.”
Yonten told me that he will go there.
Said             said
( if reporting verb is not followed by an object)
John said, “My father is laborious.”
John said that he father is laborious.
That                   if/ whether
( in interrogative sentences, if the answer to the question is either yes or no)
I said, “Can you tell me the way to the hotel?”
I asked if he could tell me the way to the hotel.
He said, “Will you listen to such a man?”
He asked them whether they would listen to such a man.
No use of that/ if -
If interrogative sentences begins with what/ when, etc.
Sweety said to me, “why are you late?”
Sweety asked me why I was late.
In reporting questions the indirect speech is introduced by such verbs as asked, enquired, wonder, wanted to know.

In case of imperative sentence, said             according to sense.
He said to me, “Go out.”
He ordered me to go out.
Change in expression;
Commands –order, bid, warn/ Request- request, implore/ Proposal- advice, proposed, suggest/ Prohibit- forbid/ Entreaty- entreat, pray, beg

In exclamatory sentences,
Said              according to sense.
He said, “Alas! it is a heavy loss.”
He exclaimed with sorrow that it was a heavy loss.
Reporting verb is changed according to the feelings/ emotions of the reporting speech;
Hurrah!-  joy/Pooh!- contempt/Ah! Ah!- exclaimed with delight/Oh!- regret/ Alas!- sorrow/ Bravo!- approval/ Ugh!- disgust/ What! Or Oh!- scorn
If verb of reporting Verb is in present/ Future Tense          No change
Pem says, “She is an intelligent girl”.
Pem says that she is an intelligent girl.
He will say, “I was busy”.

If verb of reporting verb is in past tense, verb of reporting speech
           Past Tense
Gyelmo said, “She is reading a book”.
Gyelmo said that she was reading a book.
Verb changes as per the norms given below;
shall - should, will- would, may- might, can- could, is/am/are- was/were, come- came, in coming- was coming, has come- had come, has been- had been
Present Simple       Past Simple
He said, “I play football every evening”.
He said that he played football every evening.
Present Continuous         Past Continuous
He said, “I am playing football”.
He said that he was playing football.
Present Perfect        Past Perfect
He said, “I have played football for two years”.
He said that he had played football for two years.
Present Perfect Continuous 
                Past Perfect Continuous
He said, “I have been playing football for two years”.
He said that he had been playing football for two years.
Future                Conditional
He said, “I shall play football next year”.
He said that he would play football next year..

Future Perfect          Conditional Perfect
He said, “I shall have played football for two years next June”.
He said that he would have played football for two years next June.

In case of habit/ universal truth
                     No change in verb
Gyembo said, “The earth goes round the sun”.
Gyembo said that the earth goes round the sun.
Change in Personal Pronoun:
I Person                  according to subject
II Person                 according to object
III Person                No change

Tshewang said, “I am not telling a lie.”
Tshewang said that he was not telling a lie.
He said to me, “You are very happy.”
He told me I was very happy.
He said to me, “He went to Mumbai.
He told me that he had gone to Mumbia

Words showing ‘nearness’ are replaced by the words showing ‘distance’.
Here                         there
This                          that
These                        those
Ago                           before
Tonight                     that night
Last night                  the previous day
Thus                          so
Now                            then
Next day                      following day
Today                          that day
Yesterday                    previous day
Tomorrow                   next day
Hither                          thither
Hence                          thence

In each of the following sentences A is complete but B is incomplete. Complete B making it as similar as possible in meaning to sentence A.
1.      The teacher said, “ lets go on a picnic tomorrow.”
  The teacher proposed …………………………..
2.      He said’ “let him go, I’m already late.”
  He asked…………………………………………
3.      They said, “ Shall we have a holiday tomorrow.”
  They asked……………………………………….
4.      The bagger said to him, “Give me something to eat.”
  The bagger implored……………………………..
5.      “Do you really come from China?” said the Prince.
  The Prince asked…………………………………
6.      “Do you write a good hand,” he said.
  He asked…………………………………………….
7.      He said, “My God! I am ruined.”
  He exclaimed………………………………………..
8.      He said, “What a pity! you did not come?”
  He exclaimed………………………………………..
9.      “Are their enough papers left Tenzin?” asked the teacher.
  The teacher asked……………………………………
10.  Sonam asked me whether I played cricket.
  Change in direct speech
11.  He said that he would go as soos as possible.
  Change in direct speech
12.  He said, “Friends we should remain calm.”
  He said that……………………………………………
13.  “Would you mind closing the window?” she said.
  She asked……………………………………………..
14.  He said, “Ugh! He is a rascal.”
  He exclaimed …………………………………………
15.  “When does the next train come?” I asked.
  I asked…………………………………………………

Or this exercise…..
Turn the following sentences into indirect speech.
1.    ‘What do you want?’ she asked him.
2.    ‘Are you coming with us?’ he asked me.
3.    He asked, ‘When do you intend to make the payment?’
4.    ‘Do you come from China?’ said the prince to the girl.
5.    The poor man exclaimed, ‘Will none of you help me?’
6.    ‘Which way should I go?’ asked the little girl.
7.    Alladin said to the magician, ‘What have I done to deserve so severe a punishment?’
8.    ‘Don’t you know the way home?’ I said to her.
9.    ‘Do you write a good hand?’ the teacher said to the student.
10.    ‘Have you anything to say on behalf of the accused?’ said the judge finally.
11.    ‘Have you anything to tell me, little bird?’ asked Ulysses.
12.    ‘Who are you, sir, and what do you want?’ they asked.
13.    The king was impressed with the magician and asked, ‘What can I do for you?’
14.    She asked, ‘What is it that makes you stronger and braver than other men?’
15.    ‘Can you solve this problem?’ he asked me.

1.    She asked him what he wanted.
2.    He asked me if I was coming/going with them.
3.    He enquired when I/he/she intended to make the payment.
4.    The prince asked the girl if she came from China.
5.    The poor man exclaimed whether none of them would help him.
6.    The little girl asked which way she should go.
7.    Alladin asked the magician what he had done to deserve so severe a punishment.
8.    I asked her whether she did not know the way home.
9.    The teacher asked the student if he/she wrote a good hand.
10.    The judge finally asked whether he/she had anything to say on behalf of the accused.
11.    Ulysses asked the little bird whether it had anything to tell him.
12.    They asked who he was and what he wanted.
13.    The king was impressed with the magician and asked what he could do for him.
14.    She asked him what was it that made him stronger and braver than other men.
15.    He asked me if I could solve that problem.

Feedback and correction done.

Topic: The preposition
Class: V
Teaching Strategies: Lecturing and classroom activities
T/aids: chart paper, board, chalk, etc

-Tell the meaning of preposition
-Use the preposition like; on, in, at, by, for, etc
-Do some exercises

There is a pen on the book
‘On’ shows the relation between pen(noun) and the book(noun).
Today, we will study about the preposition?

Lesson Development
What then is a preposition?
 Have a good look at the italicized words.
          e.g., Tea with milk; tea without sugar.
                  I like a teaspoon of sugar in mine.
These words join other words in a sentence. But they do more than that. They show the relationship between words. For example, “tea with sugar” means something different from “tea and sugar.” Can you explain the difference? The italicized words in the above example are called prepositions.
A preposition is always placed before a noun or a pronoun to show what relationship it denotes between a person or a thing.
Tr. Explains each preposition from the chart paper containing some important prepositions.
l  Above
l  Across
l  Around
l  Behind
l  Beneath
l  Between
l  Inside
l  Next to
l  Near
l  On
l  Over
l  Past
l  Toward
l  Under
l  Upon

Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in

We use at to designate specific times.
#The train is due at 12:15 p.m.
We use on to designate days and dates.
#My brother is coming on Monday.
#We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
We use in for nonspecific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
#She likes to jog in the morning.
#It's too cold in winter to run outside.
#He started the job in 1971.
#He's going to quit in August.

Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in

We use at for specific addresses.
#Pema Wangchuk lives at Darla village in Chukha.
We use on to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
#Her house is on Norzin Road.
And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
#She lives in Gedu.
#Gedu is in Chukha.
#Chukha is in Bhutan.

Prepositions of Time: for and since

We use for when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).
#He held his breath for seven minutes.
#She's lived there for seven years.
#The British and Irish have been quarreling for seven centuries.
We use since with a specific date or time.
#He's worked here since 1970.
#She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.

1.      The car was waiting…….at/on the gate.
2.      She is fond ……of/in music.
3.      We went to our house ……on/by foot.
4.      She sat …..on/in sofa.
5.      What is the time……by/in your watch?
6.      Please wait …..for/in five minutes.
7.      Someone is knocking……at/on the door.
8.      Put ……of/off the light
9.      Karma works in Thimphu… Bhutan.
10.  We laughed ….at/on his jokes.

Summarize the lesson.
State importance of the preposition usage.
Tell students to look about other prepositions like owing to, within, outside, in front, etc.

Topic: The Articles
Class: V
Teaching Strategies: Classroom Interaction
Skills:  Critical Thinking

-Write three types of articles; a, an and the.
-Use correctly with the help of exercise.
-Tell diffecrences between indefinite and definite article.
-Critically think on how/where to use the article?

Greetings and pause for a few seconds to gain attention.
Introduce the topic.

Lesson Development

The three articles — a, an, the — are a kind of adjective. The is called the definite article because it usually go before a specific or previously mentioned NOUN, a and an are called indefinite articles because they are used to refer to something in a less specific manner (an unspecified count noun).

The is used with specific nouns. The is required when the noun it refers to represents something that is one of a kind:
The moon circles the earth.
The is required when the noun it refers to represents something named earlier in the text.
A newspaper has an obligation to seek out and tell the truth. There are situations, however, when the newspaper must determine whether the public's safety is jeopardized by knowing the truth.
Another example:
    "I'd like a glass of orange juice, please," John said.
    "I put the glass of juice on the counter already," Sheila replied.
When a modifier appears between the article and the noun, the subsequent article will continue to be indefinite:
    "I'd like a big glass of orange juice, please," John said.
    "I put a big glass of juice on the counter already," Sheila replied.
We use a before singular count-nouns that begin with consonants (a cow, a barn, a sheep);
We use an before singular count-nouns that begin with vowels or vowel-like sounds (an apple, an urban blight, an open door).
Words that begin with an h sound often require an a (as in a horse, a history book, a hotel), but if an h-word begins with an actual vowel sound, use an an (as in an hour, an honor).
We would say a useful device and a union matter because the u of those words actually sounds like yoo (as opposed, say, to the u of an ugly incident). The same is true of a European and a Euro (because of that consonantal "Yoo" sound). We would say a once-in-a-lifetime experience or a one-time hero because the words once and one begin with a w sound (as if they were spelled wuntz and won).
Zero articles: Several kinds of nouns never use articles. We do not use articles with the names of languages ("He was learning Chinese." [But when the word Chinese refers to the people, the definite article might come into play: "The Chinese are hoping to get the next Olympics."]), the names of sports ("She plays badminton and basketball."), and academic subjects ("She's taking economics and math. Her major is Religious Studies.")

Principles of Choosing an Article

Choosing articles and determiners: Briefly defined, a determiner is a noun-marker: when you see one, you know that what follows is a noun or noun phrase. There is a list of such words in the table below. When you place your mouse-cursor over a word or pair of related words (such as either/neither), you will see in the right-hand frame an image describing the kinds of words that word can modify.
Zero article (see table below) means either that no article would be appropriate with that kind of noun or that that kind of noun can be used (in that context) without an article.
Notice that there is a difference between a "stressed" some or any and an "unstressed" some or any. Consider the words in ALL CAPS as shouted words and you will hear the difference between these two:
·         That is SOME car you've got there!
·         I don't want to hear ANY excuse!
As opposed to. . .
·         We have some cars left in the lot.
·         Isn't there any furniture in the living room?
In terms of the words they usually modify, the unstressed some and any do not modify singular count nouns.
1.      This is _an__ easy question.
2.      Please speak _a__ little louder.
3.      May I have your _nil__ phone number?
4.      David is _the__ best student in our class.
5.      What is _the__ name of the next station?
6.      He has _nil__ my car today.
7.      I went to _the__ sea during my summer vacation.
8.      _The__ city museum is closed today.
9.      _An__ apple a day keeps _the__ doctor away.
10.  Do you have _a__ dictionary that I can borrow?
Tr. recollects the lesson.
Ask few verbal questions
Stds activity corrected and feedbacks given.

Topic: The Sentence
Class: V
Skills: Speaking/Listening/Writing
Methods: Explanation/activity

-Understand what a sentence is
-Understand the kinds of sentences
-Frame sentences under each category
-transform sentences as directed
-carry out the given activity correctly

What a sentence is?
Tr. and students jointly get the definition.

Lesson Development
A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought or which makes complete sense.

Sentence can be divided into FIVE kinds.



Every sentence has two essential parts: Subject and Predicate
The Subject
·         The Predicate
The subject of a sentence is the part about which something is being said.
Ø  The flower bloomed.
Ø  Padma  painted.
Ø  The girls on the team were all good students.

The predicate of a sentence is the part which says something about the subject.
Ø Yeatho told everyone about the wreck.
Ø  Samten sobbed.
Ø  Bidha plays the piano well.
The simple subject is the main word in the complete subject.
The four new students arrived early.
Simple subject      students
The complete subject is the main word and all its modifiers.
Complete subject  The four new students

The simple predicate, or verb, is the main word or group of words in the complete predicate.
Sita’s sister took us bowling yesterday.
Simple predicate    took
The complete predicate is the verb and all its modifiers.
Complete Predicate took us bowling yesterday

The most important word in the subject in a sentence is the noun.
The most important word in the predicate is the verb.


Sentences are of three types; Simple, Compound and Complex Sentences.

Simple Sentence is one which has only one subject and one predicate.
            Example: He (Subject) was an honest man. (Predicate)

Compound Sentence is made up of two or more principal or main clauses.
Example: The moon was bright and we could see our way.
The above are two sentences joined by the conjunction ‘and’. Each has a subject 
            and a predicate of its own. Hence each part is what we call a ‘clause’.

Complex Sentence also consists of two parts. One being the principal or main clause while the other being a dependent or subordinate clause. (which cannot stand by itself)
Example: They rested when evening came.
Principal clause ‘They rested’- makes sense. Subordinate clause ‘when evening
            came’ – cannot stand by itself and make sense.

Stds are asked to make more eg of each type of sentence.

Report to the class and discussed.

Topic: Transformation of Sentences/Sythesis/Interchange of Senteces
Class: V
Teaching Strategies: Explanantion/activity
Skills: Speaking/writing

- Change the mood of sentences.
-Complete the given task correctly.

A quick review of the content taught is done. Then they are given set of sentences in each category to transform to the suggested categories.

Lesson Development
The transformation of a sentence is the conversion of the sentence from one grammatical form to another without changing its meaning. It provides a variety to our expression and makes the sentence more varied and interesting. This can be done as follows

1.     Interchanging  Affirmative Sentences into Negative Sentences and Vice Versa
Affirmative:                I was doubtful whether it was you.
Negative:                    I was no sure that it was you.
Affirmative:                He is the cleverest boy in the class.
Negative:                    No other boy in the class is as cleaver as he.
Affirmative:                His students always respect him.
Negative:                    His students never disrespect him.
Affirmative:                As soon as I entered the stadium, the match started.
Negative:                    No sooner did I enter the stadium, the match started. 

2.     Interchanging  Interrogative to Affirmative Sentences and Vice Versa
Interrogative:                        Which is a better monument than the Taj in India?
Affirmative:                No mountain is better than the Taj in India.
Interrogative:                        Why waste time in listening?
Affirmative:                It is foolish to waste time in listening.

3.     Interchanging  Exclamatory Sentences to Assertive Sentences and Vice Versa
Exclamatory:              Alas! my father is admitted to hospital!
Assertive:                   It is so sad that my father is admitted to hospital.
Exclamatory:              If only I was young again!
Assertive:                   I wish I was young again.

4.     Conversion of Simple Sentences to Compound Sentences and Vice Versa
Simple:            Having finished his work he went to bed.
Compound:    He finished his work and he went to bed.
Simple:            Inspite of his hard work, he could not top the class.
Compound:    He worked hard but he could not top the class.
5.     Conversion of Compound Sentences to Complex Sentences and Vice Versa
Compound: Leave home early or you will miss the bus.
Complex: Unless you leave home early, you will miss the bus.
Compound: He lost the race but but he impressed all.
Complex: Though he lost the race, he impressed all.
Compound: Search her pockets and you will find a necklace.
Complex: If you search her pockets, you will find a necklace.

6.     Conversion of Simple Sentences to Complex Sentences and Vice Versa
Simple:He is too weak to walk on the road.
Complex: He is so weak that he cannot walk on the road.
Simple: He expected to win the tournament.
Complex: He expected that he would win the tournament.
Simple: A dead man needs no friends.
Complex: A man who is dead needs no friends.
Simple: She will attend the seminar with your permission.
Complex: She will attend the seminar if you permit her.

Change into Assertive
Exclamatory:              What a beautiful scenery!
Assertive:                   It is a beautiful scenery.
Change into affirmative
Interrogative:                        Is man the noblest creation of God?
Affirmative:                Man is the noblest creation of God.

The students answers are gone through, checked and corrected

Date: 12/5/2015
Topic:  The Verb
Class: V
Teaching Strategies: General Lesson Observation
Skills: Practice

-define verb in their own words
-underline different types of verbs
-use verbs with the agreement with the subject
-write differences between strong and weak verbs

Recall the lesson taught
Introduce lesson
Write topic on the board

Lesson Development
Verb is an expression of:
An action: He plays. To play is an action performed by the doer ‘He”.
A state of being: He stands here. ‘To’ stand is a state of being.
The root or plain form of any verb is the infinitive. This plain form is altered in a variety of ways, depending on how the verb is being used.
In English, only the third person singular form of the verb is distinct from all the others; it is characterized by the ending –‘s’ or ‘est.’ (he goes, she eats). The only exceptions to this pattern are the frequently used auxiliary or helping verbs- shall, will, can, may, must.
Regular Verbs:
The verbs which add‘d’ or ‘ed’ to their plain form in order to form the past tense are termed as regular.
E.g.  hear + d = heard                         play + ed = played

Irregular Verbs:
The verbs that do not form the past by adding ‘d’ or ‘ed’ to their endings are termed irregular,
                        e.g., drive=drove,   catch=caught, etc.
The past participle of the verbs is formed by adding‘d’ or ‘ed’ to the present or 1st form, i.e. it is the same as the past tense form e.g. work, worked, worked. But in the case of irregular verbs, the past participle is also formed irregularly e.g. to do-did, done, catch-caught, caught; hit- hit; hit; go-went; gone;etc.
ü The present participle which shows continuing action is formed by adding ‘ing’ to the plain form of the verb, e.g, eating, playing, standing, etc.
ü When you are not certain about the past tense or the past participle of a verb then look up a dictionary. Any good dictionary will give you the formation of past and past participle.
ü There are auxiliary (helping) verbs which help the verb in information of tense or voice or mood. The model auxiliaries are can, could, do, does, did, may, might, must, shall, should, will, and would.     

Different types of verbs
Verbs are classified in many ways. First, some verbs require an object to complete their meaning: "She gave _____ ?" Gave what? She gave money to the church. These verbs are called transitive. Verbs that are intransitive do not require objects: "The building collapsed." In English, you cannot tell the difference between a transitive and intransitive verb by its form; you have to see how the verb is functioning within the sentence. In fact, a verb can be both transitive and intransitive: "The monster collapsed the building by sitting on it."
Although you will seldom hear the term, a ditransitive verb — such as cause or give — is one that can take a direct object and an indirect object at the same time: "That horrid music gave me a headache." Ditransitive verbs are slightly different, then, from factitive verbs (see below), in that the latter take two objects.
Verbs are also classified as either finite or non-finite. A finite verb makes an assertion or expresses a state of being and can stand by itself as the main verb of a sentence.
·         The truck demolished the restaurant.
·         The leaves were yellow and sickly.
Non-finite verbs (think "unfinished") cannot, by themselves, be main verbs:
·         The broken window . . .
·         The wheezing gentleman . . .
Another, more useful term for non-finite verb is verbal. In this section, we discuss various verbal forms: infinitives, gerunds, and participles.

Subject-Verb Agreement
In a grammatically correct sentence the verb must agree with the subject and should be in the same number and person.
 Basic Principle: Singular subjects need singular verbs; plural subjects need plural verbs. My brother is a nutritionist. My sisters are mathematicians.

1.       When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by ‘and’ the verb is plural.
a.        Gold and diamond are precious metals.
b.      Hate and jealousy are human emotions.
c.       Are you brother and sister at home?

2.      If the two subject suggest one idea then the verb is singular.
a.       Bread and butter is for breakfast.
b.      Honour and glory is his reward.

3.      If two singular nouns refer to the same person or thing the verb is singular.
a.        My friend and guide has come.
b.      The novelist and poet is dead.

4.      When two or more singular subjects are connected by or, nor, either, … or, neither, … nor, the verb is singular.
a.       No nook or corner was left untouched.
b.      Either the cat or the dog has been hit.
c.       Neither praise nor blame seem to effect him.
      Exception to the rule:-
      However when one of the subjects joined by ‘or’, or ‘nor’ is plural, the verb is plural.
a.       Neither the Chairman nor the Directors are interested.
b.      Either Yonten or his brothers are to be blamed.

5.      When two subjects joined by ‘or’, or ‘nor’, are of different persons the verb agrees with the nearer.
a.       Either he or I am mistaken.
b.      Either my father or my brothers are going to sell the house.
c.       Neither my brothers nor my father is going to sell the house.
6.      ‘Either’, ‘neither’, ‘each’, ‘everyone’, ‘many’, must be followed by a singular verb. The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, nobody are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs.
a.       Everyone has done his or her homework.
b.      Somebody has left her purse.
c.       Each of these substances is found in the state.
d.      Neither of the two man was strong.
e.       Many a man has succumbed to the temptation.

7.      A collective noun takes a singular verb when the collection is thought of as one whole.
a.       The committee has sent its report.
b.      The house has elected the Chairman.
      If the collective noun implies the individuals of the collection then the verb is plural.
a.       The members of the committee are divided on one point.

8.      When a plural noun which is also a proper noun for some single object, or a collective unit it is followed by a singular verb.
a.       Gulliver’s travel was written by Swift.
b.      The United State of America has a big army.

9.      When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount as a whole the verb is generally singular.
a.       Ten kilometer is a long distance.
b.      One hundred chueltrum is equal to one nultrum.

10.  When two nouns are joined by ‘with’ or ‘as well as’ the verb agrees with the first noun.
a.       The mayor as well as his brothers is going to prison.
b.      Iron as well as coal is found in Bihar.
c.       The gangster with all his men was killed.

11.  As a general rule the verb agrees in number with the subject of the verb i.e. if the subject is singular, verb is also singular.
a.       The quality of the mango is good (the subject being quality).
b.      Many of his books were destroyed (subject being books).
12.  Some nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning hence they take a singular verb.
a.       The news is very good.
b.      The wages of sin is death.

13.  ‘None’ though properly singular in form but plural in meaning takes a plural verb.
a.       None are so deaf as those who will not hear.


Select one answer from the choices provided after each sentence. The word you choose should fit the blank in the sentence.

1.      Either the physicians in this hospital or the chief administrator ____ going to have to make a decision.(is/ are)
2.        ______ my boss or my sisters in the union going to win this grievance?(Is/ Are)
3.      Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted. (seem/seems)
4.      The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring _____ more than just a nuisance.
5.      Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time.(have/ has)
6.      Kara Wolters, together with her teammates, _________ a formidable opponent on the basketball court. (presents/present)
7.      He seems to forget that there __________ things to be done before he can graduate.(are/ is)
8.      There _______ to be some people left in that town after yesterday's flood. (have/ has)
9.      Some of the grain __________ to be contaminated. (appear/ appears)
10.  Three-quarters of the students __________ against the tuition hike.(is/are)
11.  Three-quarters of the student body __________ against the tuition hike. (is/are)
12.  A high percentage of the population _________ voting for the new school. (is/are)
13.  A high percentage of the people _________ voting for the new school.(was/were)
14.  Carlos is the only one of those students who __________ lived up to the potential described in the yearbook. (has/ have)
15.  The International Club, as well as the Choral Society and the Rowing Club, __________ to submit a new constitution.(need/ needs)
16.  One of my best friends _____________ an extra on Seinfeld this week.(are/is)
17.  Not only the students but also their instructor ________ been called to the principal's office. (have/ has)
18.  Most of the milk _____ gone bad. Six gallons of milk _______ still in the refrigerator. (has…are/ have…are)
19.  Each and every student and instructor in this building __________ for a new facility by next year. (hope/ hopes)
20.  Rice and beans, my favorite dish, __________ me of my native Puerto Rico. (remind/ reminds)
21.  Four years _______ a long time to spend away from your friends and family. (are/is)
22.  Politics __________ sometimes a dirty business. (are/is)
23.  To an outsider, the economics of this country ________ to be in disarray. (seem/ seems)

Tr. ends the class by recalling the lesson learnt, and giving them homework from the grammar text.

 Note: Please acknowledge the writer if you want to use in any way.